Bruce Bowen F  #14

Current Team: Retired

Born: Jun 14, 1971 (47 years old)

Birthplace: Merced, California (United States)

Nationality: United States

Height: 6-7 (201cm)     Weight: 200 (91kg)

Current NBA Status: Retired (Sep 3, 2009)

Current Agent: Jim Tanner

Draft Entry: 1993 NBA Draft

Drafted: Undrafted

Pre-Draft Team: Cal State Fullerton (Sr)

High School: Edison High School [Fresno, California]

Jump to: [ NBA ] [ NCAA ]

NBA

14 Years Of Service - 5x All-NBA Defensive 1st, #12 retired by SAN

NBA Regular Season Stats - Per Game

Season Team GP GS MIN FGM FGA FG% 3PM 3PA 3P% FTM FTA FT% OFF DEF TRB AST STL BLK PF TOV PTS
1996-97 MIA 1 0 1.0 0.00 0.00 .000 0.00 0.00 .000 0.00 0.00 .000 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
1997-98 BOS 61 9 21.4 2.00 4.89 .409 0.33 0.97 .339 1.25 2.00 .623 1.30 1.56 2.85 1.33 1.43 0.48 2.85 0.85 5.57
1998-99 BOS 30 1 16.5 0.87 3.10 .280 0.23 0.87 .269 0.37 0.80 .458 0.50 1.23 1.73 0.93 0.70 0.30 1.70 0.43 2.33
1999-00 * All Teams 69 2 12.7 1.04 2.81 .371 0.39 0.84 .466 0.36 0.62 .581 0.39 1.00 1.39 0.49 0.33 0.22 1.71 0.28 2.84
1999-00 * PHL 42 0 7.4 0.62 1.74 .356 0.02 0.05 .500 0.14 0.29 .500 0.33 0.52 0.86 0.38 0.21 0.12 0.88 0.12 1.40
1999-00 * MIA 27 2 21.0 1.70 4.48 .380 0.96 2.07 .464 0.70 1.15 .613 0.48 1.74 2.22 0.67 0.52 0.37 3.00 0.52 5.07
2000-01 MIA 82 72 32.7 2.57 7.09 .363 1.26 3.74 .336 1.20 1.96 .609 0.55 2.44 2.99 1.61 1.01 0.65 3.28 0.90 7.60
2001-02 SAN 59 59 28.8 2.63 6.75 .389 0.95 2.51 .378 0.78 1.63 .479 0.71 2.03 2.75 1.49 1.05 0.42 1.97 1.12 6.98
2002-03 SAN 82 82 31.3 2.72 5.84 .466 1.23 2.79 .441 0.44 1.09 .404 0.72 2.20 2.91 1.38 0.80 0.51 2.38 0.88 7.11
2003-04 SAN 82 82 32.0 2.57 6.12 .420 0.94 2.59 .363 0.80 1.39 .579 0.55 2.54 3.09 1.38 1.02 0.40 2.02 1.10 6.89
2004-05 SAN 82 82 32.0 3.06 7.29 .420 1.24 3.09 .403 0.87 1.37 .634 0.61 2.87 3.48 1.54 0.67 0.48 2.13 0.70 8.23
2005-06 SAN 82 82 33.6 2.83 6.54 .433 1.27 2.99 .424 0.62 1.02 .607 0.43 3.48 3.90 1.54 0.96 0.37 2.33 0.82 7.55
2006-07 SAN 82 82 30.1 2.30 5.70 .405 1.09 2.83 .384 0.52 0.89 .589 0.28 2.44 2.72 1.43 0.76 0.30 2.13 0.79 6.22
2007-08 SAN 81 81 30.2 2.15 5.28 .407 1.11 2.65 .419 0.56 0.85 .652 0.41 2.48 2.89 1.12 0.67 0.27 2.19 0.57 5.96
2008-09 SAN 80 10 18.8 0.99 2.34 .422 0.53 1.23 .429 0.17 0.33 .538 0.20 1.61 1.81 0.50 0.45 0.16 1.54 0.31 2.67
CAREER   873 644 27.6 2.23 5.45 .409 0.94 2.38 .393 0.67 1.16 .575 0.54 2.24 2.78 1.25 0.82 0.38 2.21 0.74 6.06

NBA Regular Season Stats - Totals

Season Team GP GS MIN FGM FGA FG% 3PM 3PA 3P% FTM FTA FT% OFF DEF TRB AST STL BLK PF TOV PTS
1996-97 MIA 1 0 1 0 0 .000 0 0 .000 0 0 .000 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
1997-98 BOS 61 9 1305 122 298 .409 20 59 .339 76 122 .623 79 95 174 81 87 29 174 52 340
1998-99 BOS 30 1 494 26 93 .280 7 26 .269 11 24 .458 15 37 52 28 21 9 51 13 70
1999-00 * All Teams 69 2 878 72 194 .371 27 58 .466 25 43 .581 27 69 96 34 23 15 118 19 196
1999-00 * PHL 42 0 311 26 73 .356 1 2 .500 6 12 .500 14 22 36 16 9 5 37 5 59
1999-00 * MIA 27 2 567 46 121 .380 26 56 .464 19 31 .613 13 47 60 18 14 10 81 14 137
2000-01 MIA 82 72 2685 211 581 .363 103 307 .336 98 161 .609 45 200 245 132 83 53 269 74 623
2001-02 SAN 59 59 1700 155 398 .389 56 148 .378 46 96 .479 42 120 162 88 62 25 116 66 412
2002-03 SAN 82 82 2567 223 479 .466 101 229 .441 36 89 .404 59 180 239 113 66 42 195 72 583
2003-04 SAN 82 82 2624 211 502 .420 77 212 .363 66 114 .579 45 208 253 113 84 33 166 90 565
2004-05 SAN 82 82 2627 251 598 .420 102 253 .403 71 112 .634 50 235 285 126 55 39 175 57 675
2005-06 SAN 82 82 2754.3 232 536 .433 104 245 .424 51 84 .607 35 285 320 126 79 30 191 67 619
2006-07 SAN 82 82 2464.2 189 467 .405 89 232 .384 43 73 .589 23 200 223 117 62 25 175 65 510
2007-08 SAN 81 81 2447.5 174 428 .407 90 215 .419 45 69 .652 33 201 234 91 54 22 177 46 483
2008-09 SAN 80 10 1507.8 79 187 .422 42 98 .429 14 26 .538 16 129 145 40 36 13 123 25 214
CAREER   873 644 24054.9 1945 4761 .409 818 2082 .393 582 1013 .575 469 1959 2428 1089 712 336 1930 646 5290

NBA Regular Season Stats - Misc Stats

Season Team GP GS Dbl Dbl Tpl Dbl 40 Pts 20 Reb 20 Ast Techs HOB Ast/TO Stl/TO FT/FGA W's L's Win % OWS DWS WS
1996-97 MIA 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .000 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 0 1.000 - 0.01 0.01
1997-98 BOS 61 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 .091 1.56 1.67 0.41 26 35 .426 0.79 1.44 2.24
1998-99 BOS 30 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 .049 2.15 1.62 0.26 10 20 .333 -0.40 0.27 -0.13
1999-00 * All Teams 69 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 .043 1.79 1.21 0.22 37 32 .536 0.26 0.90 1.15
1999-00 * PHL 42 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .028 3.20 1.80 0.16 20 22 .476 -0.09 0.33 0.23
1999-00 * MIA 27 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 .069 1.29 1.00 0.26 17 10 .630 0.33 0.55 0.88
2000-01 MIA 82 72 0 0 0 0 0 0 .127 1.78 1.12 0.28 50 32 .610 0.51 3.63 4.14
2001-02 SAN 59 59 0 0 0 0 0 0 .114 1.33 0.94 0.24 47 12 .797 -0.24 2.21 1.97
2002-03 SAN 82 82 0 0 0 0 0 5 .116 1.57 0.92 0.19 60 22 .732 2.38 2.51 4.89
2003-04 SAN 82 82 0 0 0 0 0 4 .114 1.26 0.93 0.23 57 25 .695 0.75 4.38 5.13
2004-05 SAN 82 82 0 0 0 0 0 2 .129 2.21 0.96 0.19 59 23 .720 2.12 3.84 5.96
2005-06 SAN 82 82 0 0 0 0 0 0 .120 1.88 1.18 0.16 63 19 .768 1.60 4.43 6.03
2006-07 SAN 82 82 0 0 0 0 0 3 .102 1.80 0.95 0.16 58 24 .707 0.41 3.48 3.89
2007-08 SAN 81 81 0 0 0 0 0 3 .091 1.98 1.17 0.16 56 25 .691 0.94 3.31 4.24
2008-09 SAN 80 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 .040 1.60 1.44 0.14 54 26 .675 0.29 1.87 2.16
CAREER   873 644 0 0 0 0 0 17 .097 1.69 1.10 0.21 578 295 .662 9.31 31.10 40.42

NBA Regular Season Stats - Advanced Stats

Season Team GP GS TS% eFG% ORB% DRB% TRB% AST% TOV% STL% BLK% USG% Total S % PPR PPS ORtg DRtg PER
1996-97 MIA 1 0 .000 .000 - - - - - - 87.27 - 0.00 - 0.00 - 28.6 37.64
1997-98 BOS 61 9 .483 .443 6.54 9.41 7.85 9.34 12.88 3.44 1.76 13.33 137.13 0.15 1.14 103.9 104.4 11.05
1998-99 BOS 30 1 .338 .317 3.25 8.85 5.91 8.16 11.15 2.23 1.33 10.43 100.71 1.11 0.75 81.6 106.0 5.00
1999-00 * All Teams 69 2 .460 .441 3.45 8.89 6.16 5.93 8.19 1.39 1.30 11.86 141.80 0.43 1.01 99.9 104.2 6.79
1999-00 * PHL 42 0 .377 .363 4.73 7.85 6.25 7.74 6.00 1.49 1.21 11.55 135.62 1.81 0.81 91.5 103.9 6.01
1999-00 * MIA 27 2 .509 .488 2.89 9.70 6.42 5.04 9.42 1.38 1.38 12.61 145.74 -0.38 1.13 103.7 104.6 7.43
2000-01 MIA 82 72 .478 .452 1.99 8.84 5.42 8.21 10.20 1.70 1.52 13.10 130.74 0.55 1.07 97.1 100.4 8.13
2001-02 SAN 59 59 .468 .460 2.97 7.97 5.55 7.91 13.04 1.94 1.05 13.89 124.70 -0.43 1.04 94.4 102.4 8.15
2002-03 SAN 82 82 .563 .571 2.80 7.76 5.39 6.81 12.20 1.37 1.15 10.66 131.11 0.13 1.22 109.7 104.1 9.09
2003-04 SAN 82 82 .512 .497 1.94 8.75 5.39 6.74 14.02 1.73 0.91 11.33 136.25 -0.56 1.13 99.0 98.1 8.18
2004-05 SAN 82 82 .521 .505 2.22 10.48 6.35 7.47 8.09 1.13 1.07 12.48 145.68 1.05 1.13 108.8 102.6 9.51
2005-06 SAN 82 82 .540 .530 1.54 11.93 6.87 6.81 10.47 1.56 0.78 11.12 146.45 0.63 1.15 107.2 101.9 9.04
2006-07 SAN 82 82 .511 .500 1.18 9.43 5.47 6.97 11.52 1.34 0.75 10.87 137.74 0.54 1.09 100.6 103.3 7.06
2007-08 SAN 81 81 .527 .512 1.61 9.59 5.65 5.52 9.12 1.19 0.68 9.86 147.73 0.62 1.13 105.6 104.9 6.99
2008-09 SAN 80 10 .539 .535 1.28 10.06 5.73 3.72 11.19 1.29 0.64 7.17 138.95 0.11 1.14 104.3 106.6 5.33
CAREER   873 644 .508 .494 2.29 9.43 5.89 6.87 11.04 1.59 1.03 11.35 137.60 0.34 1.11 102.6 103.2 8.14

More Bruce Bowen NBA Stats »

NBA Transactions

Jun 30, 1993 - Bruce Bowen went undrafted in the 1993 NBA Draft making him an Unrestricted FA.
Oct 5, 1995 - Bruce Bowen signed a contract with the Miami Heat.
Oct 12, 1995 - The Miami Heat placed the contract of Bruce Bowen on waivers.
Oct 16, 1995 - Bruce Bowen, previously with the Miami Heat, became a free agent.
Mar 15, 1997 - Bruce Bowen signed a contract with the Miami Heat.
Mar 25, 1997 - Bruce Bowen, previously with the Miami Heat, became a free agent.
Mar 25, 1997 - Bruce Bowen signed a contract with the Miami Heat.
Jul 1, 1997 - Bruce Bowen, previously with the Miami Heat, became a free agent.
Jul 20, 1997 - Bruce Bowen signed a multi-year contract with the Boston Celtics.
Jun 30, 1998 - The Boston Celtics exercised their Team Option to extend the contract of Bruce Bowen.
Jul 1, 1999 - Bruce Bowen, previously with the Boston Celtics, became a free agent.
Sep 15, 1999 - Bruce Bowen signed a contract with the Philadelphia Sixers.
Feb 16, 2000 - Bruce Bowen was acquired by the Chicago Bulls, along with John Starks and a conditional 2000 1st round pick (WAS own), from the Philadelphia Sixers in exchange for Toni Kukoc.
Feb 21, 2000 - The Chicago Bulls placed the contract of Bruce Bowen on waivers.
Feb 23, 2000 - The Miami Heat made a successful waiver claim for the contract of Bruce Bowen.
Jul 1, 2000 - Bruce Bowen, previously with the Miami Heat, became a free agent.
Aug 1, 2000 - Bruce Bowen signed a contract with the Miami Heat.
Jul 1, 2001 - Bruce Bowen, previously with the Miami Heat, became a free agent.
Jul 29, 2001 - Bruce Bowen signed a multi-year contract with the San Antonio Spurs.
Jul 1, 2002 - Bruce Bowen, previously with the San Antonio Spurs, became a free agent.
Jul 22, 2002 - Bruce Bowen signed a multi-year contract with the San Antonio Spurs.
Jul 1, 2004 - Bruce Bowen, previously with the San Antonio Spurs, became a free agent.
Jul 14, 2004 - Bruce Bowen signed a multi-year contract with the San Antonio Spurs.
Oct 5, 2007 - Bruce Bowen signed a veteran extension with the San Antonio Spurs.
Jun 23, 2009 - Bruce Bowen was acquired by the Milwaukee Bucks, along with Amir Johnson, Kurt Thomas and a TPE, from the San Antonio Spurs in exchange for Richard Jefferson.
Jul 31, 2009 - The Milwaukee Bucks placed the contract of Bruce Bowen on waivers.
Aug 7, 2009 - Bruce Bowen, previously with the Milwaukee Bucks, became a free agent.
Sep 3, 2009 - Bruce Bowen retired from professional basketball.

More NBA Transactions »

NBA Awards & Honors

Player Of The Week - 1/09/2005
All-NBA Defensive First Team - 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008
All-NBA Defensive Second Team - 2001, 2002, 2003

* Since the 1946-1947 season

NBA Playoff Stats - Per Game

Season Team GP GS MIN FGM FGA FG% 3PM 3PA 3P% FTM FTA FT% OFF DEF TRB AST STL BLK PF TOV PTS
1999-00 MIA 10 0 15.7 1.00 2.70 .370 0.50 2.20 .227 1.00 1.60 .625 0.10 0.90 1.00 0.80 0.70 0.40 2.70 0.60 3.50
2000-01 MIA 3 3 19.3 1.67 5.33 .312 0.67 2.67 .250 0.00 0.00 .000 0.33 0.33 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 2.67 0.67 4.00
2001-02 SAN 10 10 34.5 2.50 6.10 .410 1.10 2.50 .440 0.70 1.40 .500 0.90 2.40 3.30 1.40 1.10 0.70 2.80 0.70 6.80
2002-03 SAN 24 24 31.2 2.25 6.04 .372 1.46 3.33 .438 0.96 1.75 .548 0.58 2.29 2.88 1.62 0.83 0.71 2.17 0.62 6.92
2003-04 SAN 10 10 29.8 2.30 6.30 .365 1.10 2.90 .379 0.30 1.30 .231 0.60 2.30 2.90 1.00 0.40 0.30 2.40 0.40 6.00
2004-05 SAN 23 23 35.4 2.00 5.57 .359 1.26 2.91 .433 0.48 0.74 .647 0.39 2.48 2.87 1.57 0.48 0.57 3.35 0.65 5.74
2005-06 SAN 13 13 34.0 2.46 4.69 .525 1.15 2.31 .500 0.08 0.15 .500 0.46 1.69 2.15 1.23 0.85 0.62 3.23 0.69 6.15
2006-07 SAN 20 20 34.4 2.35 5.95 .395 1.65 3.70 .446 0.15 0.30 .500 0.60 3.45 4.05 1.30 1.40 0.20 2.70 0.70 6.50
2007-08 SAN 17 17 29.9 2.18 5.47 .398 1.29 3.18 .407 0.47 0.65 .727 0.12 1.82 1.94 1.35 0.65 0.35 2.41 0.53 6.12
2008-09 SAN 5 2 26.0 1.40 2.60 .538 1.00 1.80 .556 0.40 0.40 1.000 0.00 3.00 3.00 0.60 0.60 0.00 2.00 0.60 4.20
CAREER   135 122 31.0 2.12 5.38 .394 1.24 2.95 .422 0.50 0.91 .553 0.44 2.27 2.71 1.31 0.80 0.47 2.69 0.62 5.99

Bruce Bowen Full Playoffs History »

NBA Playoff Stats - Totals

Season Team GP GS MIN FGM FGA FG% 3PM 3PA 3P% FTM FTA FT% OFF DEF TRB AST STL BLK PF TOV PTS
1999-00 MIA 10 0 157 10 27 .370 5 22 .227 10 16 .625 1 9 10 8 7 4 27 6 35
2000-01 MIA 3 3 58 5 16 .312 2 8 .250 0 0 .000 1 1 2 2 2 2 8 2 12
2001-02 SAN 10 10 345 25 61 .410 11 25 .440 7 14 .500 9 24 33 14 11 7 28 7 68
2002-03 SAN 24 24 750 54 145 .372 35 80 .438 23 42 .548 14 55 69 39 20 17 52 15 166
2003-04 SAN 10 10 298 23 63 .365 11 29 .379 3 13 .231 6 23 29 10 4 3 24 4 60
2004-05 SAN 23 23 814 46 128 .359 29 67 .433 11 17 .647 9 57 66 36 11 13 77 15 132
2005-06 SAN 13 13 441.9 32 61 .525 15 30 .500 1 2 .500 6 22 28 16 11 8 42 9 80
2006-07 SAN 20 20 688.5 47 119 .395 33 74 .446 3 6 .500 12 69 81 26 28 4 54 14 130
2007-08 SAN 17 17 508 37 93 .398 22 54 .407 8 11 .727 2 31 33 23 11 6 41 9 104
2008-09 SAN 5 2 129.8 7 13 .538 5 9 .556 2 2 1.000 0 15 15 3 3 0 10 3 21
CAREER   135 122 4190.2 286 726 .394 168 398 .422 68 123 .553 60 306 366 177 108 64 363 84 808

NBA Playoff Stats - Misc Stats

Season Team GP GS Dbl Dbl Tpl Dbl 40 Pts 20 Reb 20 Ast Techs HOB Ast/TO Stl/TO FT/FGA W's L's Win % OWS DWS WS
1999-00 MIA 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .058 1.33 1.17 0.59 6 4 .600 0.01 0.37 0.38
2000-01 MIA 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 .079 1.00 1.00 0.00 0 3 .000 -0.10 0.01 -0.10
2001-02 SAN 10 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 .119 2.00 1.57 0.23 4 6 .400 0.24 0.28 0.52
2002-03 SAN 24 24 0 0 0 0 0 3 .115 2.60 1.33 0.29 16 8 .667 0.50 1.09 1.59
2003-04 SAN 10 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 .099 2.50 1.00 0.21 6 4 .600 0.13 0.12 0.25
2004-05 SAN 23 23 0 0 0 0 0 2 .103 2.40 0.73 0.13 16 7 .696 0.28 0.68 0.96
2005-06 SAN 13 13 0 0 0 0 0 0 .101 1.78 1.22 0.03 7 6 .538 0.43 0.10 0.53
2006-07 SAN 20 20 0 0 0 0 0 1 .104 1.86 2.00 0.05 16 4 .800 0.44 0.80 1.24
2007-08 SAN 17 17 0 0 0 0 0 1 .099 2.56 1.22 0.12 9 8 .529 0.20 0.54 0.74
2008-09 SAN 5 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 .057 1.00 1.00 0.15 1 4 .200 0.12 0.04 0.16
CAREER   135 122 0 0 0 0 0 7 .100 2.11 1.29 0.17 81 54 .600 2.28 3.92 6.20

NBA Playoff Stats - Advanced Stats

Season Team GP GS TS% eFG% ORB% DRB% TRB% AST% TOV% STL% BLK% USG% Total S % PPR PPS ORtg DRtg PER
1999-00 MIA 10 0 .514 .463 0.76 6.80 3.78 8.89 14.99 2.54 2.06 12.71 122.26 -0.47 1.30 97.3 95.6 7.73
2000-01 MIA 3 3 .375 .375 2.12 2.09 2.10 6.48 11.11 1.77 2.64 14.16 56.25 -1.11 0.75 73.9 109.9 3.33
2001-02 SAN 10 10 .506 .500 3.00 8.09 5.53 6.62 9.44 1.78 1.48 10.42 134.98 0.72 1.11 105.7 105.0 9.38
2002-03 SAN 24 24 .508 .493 2.13 7.77 5.05 8.26 8.40 1.40 1.71 10.89 135.75 1.47 1.14 107.3 102.0 9.07
2003-04 SAN 10 10 .437 .452 2.31 9.62 5.81 5.41 5.50 0.74 0.83 11.46 97.52 0.92 0.95 96.6 103.3 6.77
2004-05 SAN 23 23 .487 .473 1.35 8.14 4.83 6.70 9.97 0.75 1.14 8.67 143.93 1.15 1.03 105.8 109.6 5.59
2005-06 SAN 13 13 .646 .648 1.85 6.00 4.06 5.41 12.70 1.36 1.37 7.86 152.46 0.39 1.31 120.9 115.6 8.41
2006-07 SAN 20 20 .534 .534 2.11 11.56 6.95 5.67 10.32 2.19 0.43 9.33 134.09 0.50 1.09 107.8 104.1 8.78
2007-08 SAN 17 17 .531 .516 0.45 7.02 3.74 6.88 8.42 1.16 0.86 10.06 153.25 1.29 1.12 105.3 107.7 7.15
2008-09 SAN 5 2 .756 .731 - 14.75 7.02 3.42 17.77 1.30 - 6.46 209.40 -0.82 1.62 124.0 114.0 8.88
CAREER   135 122 .518 .510 1.70 8.44 5.12 6.58 9.72 1.40 1.15 9.78 136.89 0.84 1.11 106.0 106.2 7.77

More Bruce Bowen NBA Playoff Stats »

NBA Training Camp Experience

1997 NBA Training Camp - Boston Celtics
1998 NBA Training Camp - Boston Celtics
1999 NBA Training Camp - Philadelphia Sixers
2000 NBA Training Camp - Miami Heat
2001 NBA Training Camp - San Antonio Spurs
2002 NBA Training Camp - San Antonio Spurs
2003 NBA Training Camp - San Antonio Spurs
2004 NBA Training Camp - San Antonio Spurs
2005 NBA Training Camp - San Antonio Spurs
2006 NBA Training Camp - San Antonio Spurs
2007 NBA Training Camp - San Antonio Spurs
2008 NBA Training Camp - San Antonio Spurs

NCAA

College: Cal State Fullerton (1993)

NCAA Season Stats - Per Game

Season School Class GP GS MIN FGM FGA FG% 3PM 3PA 3P% FTM FTA FT% OFF DEF TRB AST STL BLK PF TOV PTS
1989-90 Cal State Fullerton Fr - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1990-91 Cal State Fullerton So - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1991-92 Cal State Fullerton Jr - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1992-93 Cal State Fullerton Sr - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -