Dennis Rodman PF  #90

Current Team: Retired

Born: May 13, 1961 (61 years old)

Birthplace/Hometown: Trenton, New Jersey

Nationality: United States

Height: 6-7 (201cm)     Weight: 210 (95kg)

Current NBA Status: Retired (Nov 1, 2006)

Draft Entry: 1986 NBA Draft

Drafted: Round 2, Pick 3, Detroit Pistons

Pre-Draft Team: Southeastern Oklahoma State (Sr)

High School: South Oak Cliff High School [Dallas, Texas]

Jump to: [ NBA ] [ NCAA ]

NBA

14 Years Of Service - NBA's Top 75, Hall of Fame Player, 2x DPOY, 7x All-NBA Defensive 1st, 2x All-Star, #10 retired by DET

NBA Regular Season Stats - Per Game

Season Team GP GS MIN PTS FGM FGA FG% 3PM 3PA 3P% FTM FTA FT% OFF DEF TRB AST STL BLK TOV PF
1986-87 DET 77 1 15.0 6.49 2.77 5.08 .545 0.00 0.01 .000 0.96 1.64 .587 2.12 2.19 4.31 0.73 0.49 0.62 1.21 2.16
1987-88 DET 82 32 26.2 11.62 4.85 8.65 .561 0.06 0.21 .294 1.85 3.46 .535 3.88 4.84 8.72 1.34 0.91 0.55 1.90 3.33
1988-89 DET 82 8 26.9 8.96 3.85 6.48 .595 0.07 0.32 .231 1.18 1.89 .626 3.99 5.43 9.41 1.21 0.67 0.93 1.54 3.56
1989-90 DET 82 43 29.0 8.77 3.51 6.05 .581 0.01 0.11 .111 1.73 2.65 .654 4.10 5.56 9.66 0.88 0.63 0.73 1.10 3.37
1990-91 DET 82 77 33.5 8.16 3.37 6.83 .493 0.07 0.37 .200 1.35 2.15 .631 4.40 8.11 12.51 1.04 0.79 0.67 1.15 3.43
1991-92 DET 82 80 40.3 9.76 4.17 7.74 .539 0.39 1.23 .317 1.02 1.71 .600 6.38 12.28 18.66 2.33 0.83 0.85 1.71 3.02
1992-93 DET 62 55 38.9 7.55 2.95 6.92 .427 0.24 1.18 .205 1.40 2.63 .534 5.92 12.34 18.26 1.65 0.77 0.73 1.66 3.24
1993-94 SAN 79 51 37.8 4.68 1.97 3.70 .534 0.06 0.30 .208 0.67 1.29 .520 5.73 11.57 17.30 2.33 0.66 0.41 1.75 2.90
1994-95 SAN 49 26 32.0 7.12 2.80 4.90 .571 0.00 0.04 .000 1.53 2.27 .676 5.59 11.20 16.80 1.98 0.63 0.47 2.00 3.24
1995-96 CHI 64 57 32.6 5.48 2.28 4.75 .480 0.05 0.42 .111 0.88 1.66 .528 5.56 9.31 14.88 2.50 0.56 0.42 2.16 3.06
1996-97 CHI 55 54 35.4 5.65 2.33 5.20 .448 0.09 0.35 .263 0.91 1.60 .568 5.82 10.24 16.05 3.09 0.58 0.35 2.02 3.13
1997-98 CHI 80 66 35.7 4.69 1.94 4.50 .431 0.05 0.29 .174 0.76 1.39 .550 5.26 9.75 15.01 2.88 0.59 0.23 1.84 2.98
1998-99 LAL 23 11 28.6 2.13 0.70 2.00 .348 0.00 0.09 .000 0.74 1.70 .436 2.70 8.52 11.22 1.30 0.43 0.52 1.35 3.09
1999-00 DAL 12 12 32.4 2.83 1.00 2.58 .387 0.00 0.08 .000 0.83 1.17 .714 4.00 10.25 14.25 1.17 0.17 0.08 1.58 3.42
CAREER   911 573 31.7 7.34 3.04 5.83 .521 0.09 0.39 .231 1.17 2.01 .584 4.75 8.37 13.12 1.76 0.67 0.58 1.63 3.12

☆ All-Star Season

NBA Regular Season Stats - Totals

Season Team GP GS MIN PTS FGM FGA FG% 3PM 3PA 3P% FTM FTA FT% OFF DEF TRB AST STL BLK TOV PF
1986-87 DET 77 1 1,155 500 213 391 .545 0 1 .000 74 126 .587 163 169 332 56 38 48 93 166
1987-88 DET 82 32 2,147 953 398 709 .561 5 17 .294 152 284 .535 318 397 715 110 75 45 156 273
1988-89 DET 82 8 2,207 735 316 531 .595 6 26 .231 97 155 .626 327 445 772 99 55 76 126 292
1989-90 DET 82 43 2,377 719 288 496 .581 1 9 .111 142 217 .654 336 456 792 72 52 60 90 276
1990-91 DET 82 77 2,747 669 276 560 .493 6 30 .200 111 176 .631 361 665 1,026 85 65 55 94 281
1991-92 DET 82 80 3,301 800 342 635 .539 32 101 .317 84 140 .600 523 1,007 1,530 191 68 70 140 248
1992-93 DET 62 55 2,410 468 183 429 .427 15 73 .205 87 163 .534 367 765 1,132 102 48 45 103 201
1993-94 SAN 79 51 2,989 370 156 292 .534 5 24 .208 53 102 .520 453 914 1,367 184 52 32 138 229
1994-95 SAN 49 26 1,568 349 137 240 .571 0 2 .000 75 111 .676 274 549 823 97 31 23 98 159
1995-96 CHI 64 57 2,088 351 146 304 .480 3 27 .111 56 106 .528 356 596 952 160 36 27 138 196
1996-97 CHI 55 54 1,947 311 128 286 .448 5 19 .263 50 88 .568 320 563 883 170 32 19 111 172
1997-98 CHI 80 66 2,856 375 155 360 .431 4 23 .174 61 111 .550 421 780 1,201 230 47 18 147 238
1998-99 LAL 23 11 657 49 16 46 .348 0 2 .000 17 39 .436 62 196 258 30 10 12 31 71
1999-00 DAL 12 12 389 34 12 31 .387 0 1 .000 10 14 .714 48 123 171 14 2 1 19 41
CAREER   911 573 28,838 6,683 2,766 5,310 .521 82 355 .231 1,069 1,832 .584 4,329 7,625 11,954 1,600 611 531 1,484 2,843

☆ All-Star Season

NBA Regular Season Stats - Misc Stats

Season Team GP GS Dbl Dbl Tpl Dbl 40 Pts 20 Reb 20 Ast Techs HOB Ast/TO Stl/TO FT/FGA W's L's Win % OWS DWS WS
1986-87 DET 77 1 7 0 0 0 0 0 .081 0.60 0.41 0.32 48 29 .623 1.10 1.72 2.82
1987-88 DET 82 32 29 0 0 0 0 0 .147 0.71 0.48 0.40 54 28 .659 3.16 3.58 6.74
1988-89 DET 82 8 20 0 0 2 0 0 .122 0.79 0.44 0.29 63 19 .768 4.07 3.90 7.97
1989-90 DET 82 43 22 0 0 1 0 0 .108 0.80 0.58 0.44 59 23 .720 4.88 4.36 9.24
1990-91 DET 82 77 25 0 0 3 0 0 .113 0.90 0.69 0.31 50 32 .610 3.35 5.23 8.59
1991-92 DET 82 80 42 0 0 39 0 0 .167 1.36 0.49 0.22 48 34 .585 5.49 7.04 12.53
1992-93 DET 62 55 22 0 0 29 0 0 .117 0.99 0.47 0.38 36 26 .581 1.37 4.69 6.06
1993-94 SAN 79 51 7 0 0 27 0 0 .111 1.33 0.38 0.35 53 26 .671 3.20 5.58 8.78
1994-95 SAN 49 26 15 0 0 20 0 0 .119 0.99 0.32 0.46 40 9 .816 2.56 2.97 5.54
1995-96 CHI 64 57 5 1 0 11 0 0 .118 1.16 0.26 0.35 57 7 .891 1.62 4.43 6.05
1996-97 CHI 55 54 11 0 0 9 0 0 .135 1.53 0.29 0.31 48 7 .873 1.97 4.02 5.99
1997-98 CHI 80 66 5 0 0 16 0 0 .129 1.56 0.32 0.31 60 20 .750 1.88 5.78 7.66
1998-99 LAL 23 11 0 0 0 1 0 0 .054 0.97 0.32 0.85 17 6 .739 -0.11 0.96 0.85
1999-00 DAL 12 12 0 0 0 1 0 0 .056 0.74 0.11 0.45 3 9 .250 0.09 0.30 0.39
CAREER   911 573 210 1 0 159 0 0 .120 1.08 0.41 0.35 636 275 .698 36.06 52.91 88.96

☆ All-Star Season

NBA Regular Season Stats - Advanced Stats

Season Team GP GS TS% eFG% ORB% DRB% TRB% AST% TOV% STL% BLK% USG% Total S % PPR PPS ORtg DRtg PER
1986-87 DET 77 1 .560 .545 15.65 15.30 15.47 6.85 17.24 1.56 2.40 18.94 113.21 -4.81 1.28 108.2 104.9 15.45
1987-88 DET 82 32 .571 .565 16.95 20.17 18.60 7.43 15.76 1.71 1.23 19.20 139.07 -3.90 1.34 112.0 103.1 17.38
1988-89 DET 82 8 .613 .601 17.58 21.77 19.77 6.29 17.37 1.25 2.11 14.10 145.17 -2.86 1.38 119.6 102.0 16.30
1989-90 DET 82 43 .608 .582 16.15 21.72 18.95 4.21 13.21 1.12 1.60 12.37 134.61 -1.84 1.45 125.5 101.9 15.41
1990-91 DET 82 77 .525 .498 14.97 27.74 21.34 4.38 12.85 1.24 1.27 11.73 132.35 -1.45 1.19 115.7 101.1 13.96
1991-92 DET 82 80 .574 .564 18.09 34.13 26.19 8.23 16.73 1.08 1.32 11.17 145.54 -0.40 1.26 121.4 99.4 17.07
1992-93 DET 62 55 .467 .444 16.26 36.70 26.07 5.76 17.06 1.04 1.22 10.85 116.58 -1.53 1.09 107.5 100.9 13.81
1993-94 SAN 79 51 .549 .543 17.92 32.92 25.77 8.20 29.06 0.93 0.70 7.16 126.22 -0.54 1.27 116.3 100.0 13.46
1994-95 SAN 49 26 .604 .571 20.75 38.85 30.11 8.33 25.33 1.01 1.04 10.86 124.65 -2.10 1.45 120.4 101.6 16.77
1995-96 CHI 64 57 .501 .485 19.70 33.69 26.62 9.92 28.24 0.91 0.98 10.32 111.97 -1.52 1.15 109.5 99.2 13.78
1996-97 CHI 55 54 .479 .456 18.47 32.00 25.29 11.40 25.48 0.88 0.74 9.91 127.89 0.12 1.09 111.4 98.2 13.96
1997-98 CHI 80 66 .459 .436 16.76 31.49 24.07 11.25 26.45 0.89 0.46 8.71 115.40 0.23 1.04 106.2 97.0 12.45
1998-99 LAL 23 11 .388 .348 11.39 33.37 22.79 6.08 32.92 0.79 1.28 6.41 78.37 -1.61 1.07 90.9 98.8 7.99
1999-00 DAL 12 12 .457 .387 13.07 35.02 23.80 4.68 33.83 0.26 0.17 6.30 110.14 -2.42 1.10 100.0 106.2 8.34
CAREER   911 573 .546 .529 17.16 29.45 23.38 7.57 19.53 1.09 1.20 11.45 133.54 -1.47 1.26 114.4 100.7 14.64

☆ All-Star Season

More Dennis Rodman NBA Stats »

NBA Transactions

Jun 17, 1986 - The Detroit Pistons selected Dennis Rodman in Round 2 with Pick 3 in the 1986 NBA Draft.
Sep 22, 1986 - Dennis Rodman signed a contract with the Detroit Pistons.
Jul 1, 1987 - Dennis Rodman, previously with the Detroit Pistons, became a free agent.
Aug 1, 1987 - Dennis Rodman signed a multi-year contract with the Detroit Pistons.
Sep 26, 1988 - Dennis Rodman signed a veteran extension with the Detroit Pistons.
Feb 15, 1991 - Dennis Rodman signed a veteran extension with the Detroit Pistons.
Oct 1, 1993 - Dennis Rodman was acquired by the San Antonio Spurs from the Detroit Pistons in a trade.
Oct 2, 1995 - Dennis Rodman was acquired by the Chicago Bulls from the San Antonio Spurs in a trade.
Jul 1, 1996 - Dennis Rodman, previously with the Chicago Bulls, became a free agent.
Aug 4, 1996 - Dennis Rodman signed a contract with the Chicago Bulls.
Jul 1, 1997 - Dennis Rodman, previously with the Chicago Bulls, became a free agent.
Oct 23, 1997 - Dennis Rodman signed a contract with the Chicago Bulls.
Jul 1, 1998 - Dennis Rodman, previously with the Chicago Bulls, became a free agent.
Jan 21, 1999 - The Chicago Bulls renounced their free-agent exception rights to Dennis Rodman.
Feb 23, 1999 - Dennis Rodman signed a multi-year contract with the Los Angeles Lakers.
Apr 15, 1999 - The Los Angeles Lakers placed the contract of Dennis Rodman on waivers.
Apr 19, 1999 - Dennis Rodman, previously with the Los Angeles Lakers, became a free agent.
Feb 3, 2000 - Dennis Rodman signed a contract with the Dallas Mavericks.
Mar 8, 2000 - The Dallas Mavericks placed the contract of Dennis Rodman on waivers.
Mar 10, 2000 - Dennis Rodman, previously with the Dallas Mavericks, became a free agent.
Nov 1, 2006 - Dennis Rodman retired from professional basketball.

More NBA Transactions »

NBA Awards & Honors

Top 75 Greatest Player
All-NBA Third Team - 1992, 1995
Player Of The Month - Jan. 1992
Player Of The Week - 12/15/1991
Defensive Player Of The Year - 1990, 1991
All-NBA Defensive First Team - 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1995, 1996
All-NBA Defensive Second Team - 1994
IBM Award - 1992

* Since the 1946-1947 season

NBA Playoff Stats - Per Game

Season Team GP GS MIN PTS FGM FGA FG% 3PM 3PA 3P% FTM FTA FT% OFF DEF TRB AST STL BLK TOV PF
1986-87 DET 15 0 16.3 6.53 2.67 4.93 .541 0.00 0.00 .000 1.20 2.13 .563 2.13 2.60 4.73 0.20 0.40 1.13 1.13 3.20
1987-88 DET 23 0 20.6 7.13 3.09 5.91 .522 0.00 0.09 .000 0.96 2.35 .407 2.22 3.70 5.91 0.91 0.52 0.61 1.35 3.78
1988-89 DET 17 0 24.1 5.76 2.18 4.12 .529 0.00 0.24 .000 1.41 2.06 .686 3.29 6.71 10.00 0.94 0.35 0.71 1.41 3.41
1989-90 DET 19 17 29.5 6.63 2.84 5.00 .568 0.00 0.00 .000 0.95 1.84 .514 2.89 5.58 8.47 0.89 0.47 0.68 1.63 3.26
1990-91 DET 15 14 33.0 6.27 2.73 6.07 .451 0.13 0.60 .222 0.67 1.60 .417 4.47 7.33 11.80 0.93 0.73 0.67 0.87 3.67
1991-92 DET 5 5 31.2 7.20 3.20 5.40 .593 0.00 0.40 .000 0.80 1.60 .500 3.20 7.00 10.20 1.80 0.80 0.40 1.40 3.40
1993-94 SAN 3 3 38.0 8.33 4.00 8.00 .500 0.00 1.67 .000 0.33 2.00 .167 8.00 8.00 16.00 0.67 2.00 1.33 2.00 4.67
1994-95 SAN 14 12 32.8 8.86 3.71 6.86 .542 0.00 0.36 .000 1.43 2.50 .571 4.93 9.86 14.79 1.29 0.86 0.00 1.79 3.64
1995-96 CHI 18 15 34.4 7.50 2.78 5.72 .485 0.00 0.00 .000 1.94 3.28 .593 5.44 8.28 13.72 2.06 0.78 0.44 2.28 4.22
1996-97 CHI 19 14 28.2 4.16 1.58 4.26 .370 0.21 0.84 .250 0.79 1.37 .577 3.11 5.32 8.42 1.42 0.53 0.21 1.47 3.89
1997-98 CHI 21 9 34.4 4.86 1.86 5.00 .371 0.05 0.19 .250 1.10 1.81 .605 4.71 7.10 11.81 1.95 0.67 0.62 1.67 4.19
CAREER   169 89 28.3 6.40 2.62 5.34 .490 0.04 0.28 .149 1.12 2.08 .540 3.70 6.21 9.92 1.21 0.62 0.57 1.53 3.73

Dennis Rodman Full Playoff History »

NBA Playoff Stats - Totals

Season Team GP GS MIN PTS FGM FGA FG% 3PM 3PA 3P% FTM FTA FT% OFF DEF TRB AST STL BLK TOV PF
1986-87 DET 15 0 245 98 40 74 .541 0 0 .000 18 32 .563 32 39 71 3 6 17 17 48
1987-88 DET 23 0 474 164 71 136 .522 0 2 .000 22 54 .407 51 85 136 21 12 14 31 87
1988-89 DET 17 0 409 98 37 70 .529 0 4 .000 24 35 .686 56 114 170 16 6 12 24 58
1989-90 DET 19 17 560 126 54 95 .568 0 0 .000 18 35 .514 55 106 161 17 9 13 31 62
1990-91 DET 15 14 495 94 41 91 .451 2 9 .222 10 24 .417 67 110 177 14 11 10 13 55
1991-92 DET 5 5 156 36 16 27 .593 0 2 .000 4 8 .500 16 35 51 9 4 2 7 17
1993-94 SAN 3 3 114 25 12 24 .500 0 5 .000 1 6 .167 24 24 48 2 6 4 6 14
1994-95 SAN 14 12 459 124 52 96 .542 0 5 .000 20 35 .571 69 138 207 18 12 0 25 51
1995-96 CHI 18 15 620 135 50 103 .485 0 0 .000 35 59 .593 98 149 247 37 14 8 41 76
1996-97 CHI 19 14 535 79 30 81 .370 4 16 .250 15 26 .577 59 101 160 27 10 4 28 74
1997-98 CHI 21 9 722 102 39 105 .371 1 4 .250 23 38 .605 99 149 248 41 14 13 35 88
CAREER   169 89 4,789 1,081 442 902 .490 7 47 .149 190 352 .540 626 1,050 1,676 205 104 97 258 630

NBA Playoff Stats - Misc Stats

Season Team GP GS Dbl Dbl Tpl Dbl 40 Pts 20 Reb 20 Ast Techs HOB Ast/TO Stl/TO FT/FGA W's L's Win % OWS DWS WS
1986-87 DET 15 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 .066 0.18 0.35 0.43 10 5 .667 0.12 0.48 0.60
1987-88 DET 23 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .104 0.68 0.39 0.40 14 9 .609 -0.08 1.09 1.01
1988-89 DET 17 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 .082 0.67 0.25 0.50 15 2 .882 0.40 1.01 1.41
1989-90 DET 19 17 3 0 0 1 0 0 .098 0.55 0.29 0.37 14 5 .737 0.21 1.15 1.37
1990-91 DET 15 14 3 0 0 1 0 0 .095 1.08 0.85 0.26 7 8 .467 0.31 0.69 1.00
1991-92 DET 5 5 2 0 0 0 0 0 .158 1.29 0.57 0.30 2 3 .400 0.10 0.39 0.50
1993-94 SAN 3 3 1 0 0 1 0 0 .132 0.33 1.00 0.25 1 2 .333 0.08 0.20 0.28
1994-95 SAN 14 12 6 0 0 2 0 0 .140 0.72 0.48 0.36 8 6 .571 0.45 1.13 1.57
1995-96 CHI 18 15 4 0 0 2 0 0 .137 0.90 0.34 0.57 15 3 .833 0.52 1.49 2.00
1996-97 CHI 19 14 2 0 0 0 0 0 .086 0.96 0.36 0.32 15 4 .789 -0.15 0.98 0.83
1997-98 CHI 21 9 3 0 0 1 0 0 .111 1.17 0.40 0.36 15 6 .714 0.20 1.29 1.49
CAREER   169 89 28 0 0 8 0 0 .103 0.79 0.40 0.39 116 53 .686 2.20 9.94 12.14

NBA Playoff Stats - Advanced Stats

Season Team GP GS TS% eFG% ORB% DRB% TRB% AST% TOV% STL% BLK% USG% Total S % PPR PPS ORtg DRtg PER
1986-87 DET 15 0 .556 .541 14.72 17.71 16.22 1.67 16.18 1.23 4.31 18.21 110.30 -6.44 1.32 107.9 105.0 14.85
1987-88 DET 23 0 .513 .522 12.57 20.82 16.71 6.97 16.25 1.34 1.94 18.08 92.95 -3.93 1.21 100.5 101.1 12.40
1988-89 DET 17 0 .574 .529 16.03 32.77 24.38 5.60 21.94 0.79 2.10 12.28 121.43 -3.70 1.40 112.9 99.7 14.71
1989-90 DET 19 17 .571 .568 11.43 21.81 16.64 4.35 21.92 0.84 1.59 11.20 108.27 -3.76 1.33 106.1 101.5 10.95
1990-91 DET 15 14 .463 .462 14.30 25.74 19.76 3.97 11.35 1.20 1.33 10.12 108.94 -0.80 1.03 111.5 109.0 12.56
1991-92 DET 5 5 .590 .593 12.32 24.76 18.80 10.64 18.66 1.45 0.84 11.70 109.26 -0.72 1.33 111.4 100.1 14.18
1993-94 SAN 3 3 .469 .500 23.68 25.26 24.45 2.78 18.38 2.91 2.42 13.09 66.67 -4.45 1.04 104.2 101.0 16.75
1994-95 SAN 14 12 .557 .542 17.74 33.23 25.74 6.34 18.33 1.41 - 13.53 111.31 -2.92 1.29 112.9 99.9 16.79
1995-96 CHI 18 15 .523 .485 18.31 30.89 24.28 9.18 24.12 1.25 1.18 12.53 107.87 -2.79 1.31 107.9 97.3 15.36
1996-97 CHI 19 14 .427 .395 12.42 22.99 17.50 7.57 23.25 1.05 0.68 10.57 119.73 -1.98 0.98 95.7 102.0 8.24
1997-98 CHI 21 9 .419 .376 16.29 26.87 21.33 8.68 22.33 1.12 1.44 10.43 122.67 -1.15 0.97 101.3 101.1 11.34
CAREER   169 89 .511 .494 15.04 25.98 20.43 6.36 19.62 1.18 1.49 12.48 117.87 -2.73 1.20 106.1 101.6 12.91

More Dennis Rodman NBA Playoff Stats »

NBA All-Star Weekend Competitions

Eastern All-Star Coaches Selection - 1990, 1992

* Since the 1946-1947 season

NBA All-Star Game Stats - Totals

Season Team GP GS MIN PTS FGM FGA FG% 3PM 3PA 3P% FTM FTA FT% OFF DEF TRB AST STL BLK TOV PF
1990 East 1 0 11 4 2 4 .500 0 0 .000 0 0 .000 3 1 4 1 0 1 2 1
1992 East 1 0 25 4 2 7 .286 0 0 .000 0 0 .000 7 6 13 0 1 0 2 1
TOTAL   2 0 36 8 4 11 .364 0 0 .000 0 0 .000 10 7 17 1 1 1 4 2
AVERAGES   2 0 18.0 4.00 2.00 5.50 .364 0.00 0.00 .000 0.00 0.00 .000 5.00 3.50 8.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 2.00 1.00

More Dennis Rodman NBA All-Star Stats »

NBA Training Camp Experience

1996 NBA Training Camp - Chicago Bulls

NCAA

College: Southeastern Oklahoma State (1986)

NCAA Season Stats - Per Game

Season School Class GP GS MIN PTS FGM FGA FG% 3PM 3PA 3P% FTM FTA FT% OFF DEF TRB AST STL BLK TOV PF
1982-83 North Central Texas College Fr - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1983-84 Southeastern Oklahoma State So - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1984-85 Southeastern Oklahoma State Jr - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1985-86 Southeastern Oklahoma State Sr - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -