Jackson Vroman FC

Current Team: N/A

Born: Jun 6, 1981 (Passed away Jun 29, 2015, aged 34)

Birthplace: Laguna, California (United States)

Nationality: United States / Lebanon

Height: 6-10 (208cm)     Weight: 220 (100kg)

Current NBA Status: Deceased (Jun 29, 2015)

Current Agent: Andrew Vye

Draft Entry: 2004 NBA Draft

Drafted: Round 2, Pick 2, Chicago Bulls

Draft Rights Trade: CHI to PHX, Jun 24, 2004

Pre-Draft Team: Iowa State (Sr)

High School: Viewmont High School [Bountiful, Utah]

Jump to: [ NBA ] [ NCAA ] [ International ] [ National ]

NBA

2 Years Of Service

NBA Regular Season Stats - Per Game

Season Team GP GS MIN FGM FGA FG% 3PM 3PA 3P% FTM FTA FT% OFF DEF TRB AST STL BLK PF TOV PTS
2004-05 * All Teams 46 18 15.3 1.78 4.33 .412 0.00 0.07 .000 1.04 1.63 .640 1.39 2.41 3.80 0.87 0.54 0.41 2.28 1.39 4.61
2004-05 * NOP 36 17 18.0 2.11 5.08 .415 0.00 0.08 .000 1.22 1.89 .647 1.64 2.86 4.50 0.92 0.61 0.47 2.61 1.58 5.44
2004-05 * PHX 10 1 5.7 0.60 1.60 .375 0.00 0.00 .000 0.40 0.70 .571 0.50 0.80 1.30 0.70 0.30 0.20 1.10 0.70 1.60
2005-06 NOP 41 2 9.9 0.63 1.61 .394 0.00 0.00 .000 0.51 1.07 .477 0.80 1.29 2.10 0.27 0.29 0.27 1.90 0.51 1.78
CAREER   87 20 12.8 1.24 3.05 .408 0.00 0.03 .000 0.79 1.37 .580 1.11 1.89 3.00 0.59 0.43 0.34 2.10 0.98 3.28

NBA Regular Season Stats - Totals

Season Team GP GS MIN FGM FGA FG% 3PM 3PA 3P% FTM FTA FT% OFF DEF TRB AST STL BLK PF TOV PTS
2004-05 * All Teams 46 18 705 82 199 .412 0 3 .000 48 75 .640 64 111 175 40 25 19 105 64 212
2004-05 * NOP 36 17 648 76 183 .415 0 3 .000 44 68 .647 59 103 162 33 22 17 94 57 196
2004-05 * PHX 10 1 57 6 16 .375 0 0 .000 4 7 .571 5 8 13 7 3 2 11 7 16
2005-06 NOP 41 2 405.9 26 66 .394 0 0 .000 21 44 .477 33 53 86 11 12 11 78 21 73
CAREER   87 20 1110.9 108 265 .408 0 3 .000 69 119 .580 97 164 261 51 37 30 183 85 285

NBA Regular Season Stats - Misc Stats

Season Team GP GS Dbl Dbl Tpl Dbl 40 Pts 20 Reb 20 Ast Techs HOB Ast/TO Stl/TO FT/FGA W's L's Win % OWS DWS WS
2004-05 * All Teams 46 18 2 0 0 0 0 1 .077 0.62 0.39 0.38 12 34 .261 -0.87 0.76 -0.11
2004-05 * NOP 36 17 2 0 0 0 0 1 .092 0.58 0.39 0.37 6 30 .167 -0.83 0.64 -0.19
2004-05 * PHX 10 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 .032 1.00 0.43 0.44 6 4 .600 -0.10 0.08 -0.01
2005-06 NOP 41 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 .027 0.52 0.57 0.67 22 19 .537 -0.35 0.56 0.21
CAREER   87 20 2 0 0 0 0 1 .053 0.60 0.44 0.45 34 53 .391 -1.26 1.37 0.11

NBA Regular Season Stats - Advanced Stats

Season Team GP GS TS% eFG% ORB% DRB% TRB% AST% TOV% STL% BLK% USG% Total S % PPR PPS ORtg DRtg PER
2004-05 * All Teams 46 18 .457 .412 10.37 18.51 14.38 9.43 21.62 1.91 2.05 19.06 105.21 -5.35 1.07 87.5 105.7 9.57
2004-05 * NOP 36 17 .460 .415 10.42 19.63 14.85 8.98 21.12 1.85 2.05 19.22 106.24 -5.54 1.07 87.1 106.4 9.64
2004-05 * PHX 10 1 .419 .375 9.95 14.09 12.15 16.72 26.84 2.68 2.43 19.66 94.64 -3.94 1.00 84.8 102.5 8.65
2005-06 NOP 41 2 .428 .394 9.38 15.51 12.40 4.23 19.74 1.60 2.19 12.33 87.12 -3.41 1.11 87.5 103.9 5.83
CAREER   87 20 .449 .408 10.02 17.44 13.68 7.47 21.13 1.80 2.12 16.72 98.74 -4.64 1.08 87.3 104.8 8.21

More Jackson Vroman NBA Stats »

NBA Transactions

Jun 24, 2004 - The Chicago Bulls selected Jackson Vroman in Round 2 with Pick 2 in the 2004 NBA Draft.
Jun 24, 2004 - The draft rights to Jackson Vroman was acquired by the Phoenix Suns, along with a 2005 1st round pick (CHI own) and cash, from the Chicago Bulls in exchange for the draft rights to Luol Deng.
Jul 9, 2004 - Jackson Vroman signed a multi-year contract with the Phoenix Suns.
Jan 21, 2005 - Jackson Vroman was acquired by the New Orleans Pelicans, along with Casey Jacobsen and Maciej Lampe, from the Phoenix Suns in exchange for Jim Jackson and a 2005 2nd round pick (DAL own).
May 19, 2005 - The New Orleans Hornets exercised their Team Option to extend the contract of Jackson Vroman.
Mar 31, 2006 - The New Orleans Hornets placed the contract of Jackson Vroman on waivers.
Apr 4, 2006 - Jackson Vroman, previously with the New Orleans Hornets, became a free agent.
Jun 29, 2015 - Jackson Vroman passed away. He was 34 years old at the time of his death.

More NBA Transactions »

NBA Summer League Stats - Per Game

Season Team Location GP GS MIN FGM FGA FG% 3PM 3PA 3P% FTM FTA FT% OFF DEF TRB AST STL BLK PF TOV PTS
2004-05 * All Teams - 8 6 21.8 2.75 5.12 .537 0.12 0.12 1.000 1.88 3.00 .625 2.50 2.38 4.88 1.00 0.88 0.12 4.75 1.38 7.50
2004-05 * PHX Salt Lake City 5 5 24.4 3.20 5.40 .593 0.20 0.20 1.000 2.40 3.60 .667 3.20 2.40 5.60 1.20 1.00 0.20 5.40 1.40 9.00
2004-05 * PHX Las Vegas 3 1 17.3 2.00 4.67 .429 0.00 0.00 .000 1.00 2.00 .500 1.33 2.33 3.67 0.67 0.67 0.00 3.67 1.33 5.00
2005-06 NOP Las Vegas 5 2 17.8 1.40 2.60 .538 0.00 0.00 .000 1.60 2.20 .727 0.80 2.40 3.20 0.80 0.60 0.60 4.80 1.00 4.40
2006-07 * All Teams - 10 4 18.0 2.00 4.10 .488 0.00 0.00 .000 2.30 3.50 .657 2.00 2.30 4.30 0.50 1.20 0.80 4.00 2.10 6.30
2006-07 * DAL Salt Lake City 6 0 18.0 2.33 4.83 .483 0.00 0.00 .000 2.50 3.67 .682 2.50 1.83 4.33 0.50 1.17 0.67 3.33 1.67 7.17
2006-07 * MIA Orlando 4 4 18.0 1.50 3.00 .500 0.00 0.00 .000 2.00 3.25 .615 1.25 3.00 4.25 0.50 1.25 1.00 5.00 2.75 5.00
2007-08 NOP Las Vegas 5 1 19.5 3.40 4.60 .739 0.00 0.00 .000 2.00 3.80 .526 1.60 2.80 4.40 0.40 1.20 0.00 5.00 3.00 8.80
CAREER     28 13 19.3 2.36 4.21 .559 0.04 0.04 1.000 2.00 3.18 .629 1.86 2.43 4.29 0.68 1.00 0.43 4.54 1.86 6.75

NBA Summer League Stats - Totals

Season Team Location GP GS MIN FGM FGA FG% 3PM 3PA 3P% FTM FTA FT% OFF DEF TRB AST STL BLK PF TOV PTS
2004-05 * All Teams - 8 6 174 22 41 .537 1 1 1.000 15 24 .625 20 19 39 8 7 1 38 11 60
2004-05 * PHX Salt Lake City 5 5 122 16 27 .593 1 1 1.000 12 18 .667 16 12 28 6 5 1 27 7 45
2004-05 * PHX Las Vegas 3 1 52 6 14 .429 0 0 .000 3 6 .500 4 7 11 2 2 0 11 4 15
2005-06 NOP Las Vegas 5 2 89 7 13 .538 0 0 .000 8 11 .727 4 12 16 4 3 3 24 5 22
2006-07 * All Teams - 10 4 180.3 20 41 .488 0 0 .000 23 35 .657 20 23 43 5 12 8 40 21 63
2006-07 * DAL Salt Lake City 6 0 108.1 14 29 .483 0 0 .000 15 22 .682 15 11 26 3 7 4 20 10 43
2006-07 * MIA Orlando 4 4 72.2 6 12 .500 0 0 .000 8 13 .615 5 12 17 2 5 4 20 11 20
2007-08 NOP Las Vegas 5 1 97.5 17 23 .739 0 0 .000 10 19 .526 8 14 22 2 6 0 25 15 44
CAREER     28 13 540.8 66 118 .559 1 1 1.000 56 89 .629 52 68 120 19 28 12 127 52 189

NBA Summer League Stats - Misc Stats

Season Team Location GP GS Dbl Dbl Tpl Dbl 40 Pts 20 Reb 20 Ast Techs HOB Ast/TO Stl/TO FT/FGA W's L's Win % OWS DWS WS
2004-05 * All Teams - 8 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 .121 0.73 0.64 0.59 6 2 .750 0.49 0.25 0.74
2004-05 * PHX Salt Lake City 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 .157 0.86 0.71 0.67 3 2 .600 0.49 0.14 0.62
2004-05 * PHX Las Vegas 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 .075 0.50 0.50 0.43 3 0 1.000 -0.02 0.10 0.08
2005-06 NOP Las Vegas 5 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 .081 0.80 0.60 0.85 1 4 .200 0.17 0.10 0.27
2006-07 * All Teams - 10 4 0 0 0 0 0 2 .094 0.24 0.57 0.85 5 5 .500 -0.01 0.34 0.33
2006-07 * DAL Salt Lake City 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 .100 0.30 0.70 0.76 3 3 .500 0.15 0.19 0.35
2006-07 * MIA Orlando 4 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 .083 0.18 0.45 1.08 2 2 .500 -0.16 0.15 -0.01
2007-08 NOP Las Vegas 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 .121 0.13 0.40 0.83 0 5 .000 0.12 0.08 0.20
CAREER     28 13 0 0 0 0 0 2 .106 0.37 0.54 0.75 12 16 .429 0.80 0.72 1.53

NBA Summer League Stats - Advanced Stats

Season Team Location GP GS TS% eFG% ORB% DRB% TRB% AST% TOV% STL% BLK% USG% Total S % PPR PPS ORtg DRtg PER
2004-05 * All Teams - 8 6 .582 .549 12.38 13.10 12.72 7.65 17.58 2.03 0.42 15.04 216.16 -3.21 1.46 112.8 96.5 15.01
2004-05 * PHX Salt Lake City 5 5 .644 .611 13.66 11.85 12.82 8.65 16.70 2.11 0.59 14.20 225.93 -2.47 1.67 123.6 98.5 18.04
2004-05 * PHX Las Vegas 3 1 .451 .429 8.72 16.04 12.29 5.90 19.38 1.89 - 16.90 92.86 -4.92 1.07 87.9 93.7 8.30
2005-06 NOP Las Vegas 5 2 .617 .538 4.91 16.75 10.45 7.54 21.89 1.76 2.47 11.20 126.57 -2.66 1.69 109.8 98.7 12.64
2006-07 * All Teams - 10 4 .559 .488 13.97 15.26 14.63 5.05 27.13 3.27 3.17 18.46 114.49 -9.49 1.54 94.6 99.0 14.35
2006-07 * DAL Salt Lake City 6 0 .556 .483 16.77 12.36 14.57 4.87 20.54 3.20 2.47 19.47 116.46 -7.20 1.48 103.9 99.5 18.09
2006-07 * MIA Orlando 4 4 .564 .500 9.32 19.42 14.72 5.36 38.30 3.38 4.41 16.97 111.54 -12.87 1.67 78.8 97.9 8.85
2007-08 NOP Las Vegas 5 1 .702 .739 8.45 16.76 12.35 3.40 32.36 2.87 - 18.99 126.54 -13.55 1.91 97.9 100.5 16.21
CAREER     28 13 .601 .564 10.85 15.08 12.90 6.04 24.86 2.57 1.59 16.32 218.85 -7.17 1.60 102.3 98.6 14.84

More Jackson Vroman NBA Summer League Stats »

NBA Training Camp Experience

2004 NBA Training Camp - Phoenix Suns
2005 NBA Training Camp - New Orleans Pelicans

NCAA

College: Iowa State (2004)

NCAA Season Stats - Per Game

Season School Class GP GS MIN FGM FGA FG% 3PM 3PA 3P% FTM FTA FT% OFF DEF TRB AST STL BLK PF TOV PTS
2000-01 Snow Fr - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
2001-02 Snow So - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
2002-03 Iowa State Jr 31 31 30.5 5.00 9.06 .552 0.00 0.19 .000 2.55 4.94 .516 2.58 6.81 9.39 1.81 1.00 1.55 3.74 2.52 12.55
2003-04 Iowa State Sr 32 31 30.7 5.81 10.31 .564 0.03 0.22 .143 2.25 4.44 .507 3.69 6.06 9.75 2.34 1.44 0.69 3.50 3.16 13.91
CAREER     63 62 30.6 5.41 9.70 .558 0.02 0.21 .077 2.40 4.68 .512 3.14 6.43 9.57 2.08 1.22 1.11 3.62 2.84 13.24

NCAA Season Stats - Totals

Season School Class GP GS MIN FGM FGA FG% 3PM 3PA 3P% FTM FTA FT% OFF DEF TRB AST STL BLK PF TOV PTS
2000-01 Snow Fr - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
2001-02 Snow So - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
2002-03 Iowa State Jr 31 31 947 155 281 .552 0 6 .000 79 153 .516 80 211 291 56 31 48 116 78 389
2003-04 Iowa State Sr 32 31 983 186 330 .564 1 7 .143 72 142 .507 118 194 312 75 46 22 112 101 445
CAREER     63 62 1930 341 611 .558 1 13 .077 151 295 .512 198 405 603 131 77 70 228 179 834

NCAA Season Stats - Misc Stats

Season School Class GP GS Dbl Dbl Tpl Dbl 40 Pts 20 Reb 20 Ast Techs HOB Ast/TO Stl/TO FT/FGA W's L's Win % OWS DWS WS
2000-01 Snow Fr - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
2001-02 Snow So - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
2002-03 Iowa State Jr 31 31 12 0 0 0 0 1 .259 0.72 0.40 0.54 17 14 .548 1.78 2.46 4.24
2003-04 Iowa State Sr 32 31 12 0 0 1 0 1 .293 0.74 0.46 0.43 19 13 .594 1.55 2.09 3.64
CAREER     63 62 24 0 0 1 0 2 .277 0.73 0.43 0.48 36 27 .571 3.37 4.55 7.92

NCAA Season Stats - Advanced Stats

Season School Class GP GS TS% eFG% ORB% DRB% TRB% AST% TOV% STL% BLK% USG% Total S % PPR PPS ORtg DRtg PER
2000-01 Snow Fr - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
2001-02 Snow So - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
2002-03 Iowa State Jr 31 31 .550 .552 10.75 26.41 18.86 12.00 18.07 1.95 5.20 22.96 106.79 -4.31 1.38 105.0 88.4 20.97
2003-04 Iowa State Sr 32 31 .560 .565 13.74 22.22 18.01 15.24 20.26 2.59 2.32 24.06 121.35 -4.74 1.35 104.8 96.0 20.72
CAREER     63 62 .555 .559 12.50 24.50 18.63 13.66 19.24 2.28 3.74 23.54 114.69 -4.53 1.36 105.0 92.2 20.64

NCAA Awards & Honors

All-Big 12 Third Team - 2004
All-Big 12 Honorable Mention - 2003
Big 12 All-Newcomer Team (Media) - 2003
Big 12 All-Underrated Team (Media) - 2004

International Basketball

* International basketball history from 2011-2012

International Regular Season Stats - Per Game

Season Team League GP GS MIN FGM FGA FG% 3PM 3PA 3P% FTM FTA FT% OFF DEF TRB AST STL BLK PF TOV PTS
2011-12 * All Teams All Leagues 43 40 37.3 8.53 16.30 .524 0.28 0.88 .316 4.60 7.28 .633 3.16 7.79 10.95 3.12 1.84 1.26 4.14 3.70 21.95
2011-12 * Jiangsu Nangang CBA 24 22 39.7 9.71 18.62 .521 0.50 1.38 .364 5.92 8.67 .683 2.96 8.96 11.92 3.17 2.42 1.58 4.67 4.00 25.83
2011-12 * Incheon ET Land Elephants KBL 19 18 34.2 7.05 13.37 .528 0.00 0.26 .000 2.95 5.53 .533 3.42 6.32 9.74 3.05 1.11 0.84 3.47 3.32 17.05
2012-13 Shandong CBA 42 41 29.7 4.79 8.90 .537 0.00 0.02 .000 0.83 3.14 .265 2.55 6.55 9.10 3.19 1.98 1.50 4.45 2.45 10.40
2013-14 * All Teams All Leagues 28 3 31.9 6.18 11.46 .539 0.04 0.21 .167 1.11 3.36 .330 2.46 7.25 9.71 4.00 2.75 2.00 4.32 4.11 13.50
2013-14 * Jiangsu Nangang CBA 25 1 33.2 6.60 12.20 .541 0.04 0.24 .167 1.20 3.48 .345 2.68 7.68 10.36 4.20 2.76 2.20 4.32 4.36 14.44
2013-14 * Capitanes de Arecibo Americas 3 2 21.7 2.67 5.33 .500 0.00 0.00 .000 0.33 2.33 .143 0.67 3.67 4.33 2.33 2.67 0.33 4.33 2.00 5.67

International Regular Season Stats - Totals

Season Team League GP GS MIN FGM FGA FG% 3PM 3PA 3P% FTM FTA FT% OFF DEF TRB AST STL BLK PF TOV PTS
2011-12 * All Teams All Leagues 43 40 1602.6 367 701 .524 12 38 .316 198 313 .633 136 335 471 134 79 54 178 159 944
2011-12 * Jiangsu Nangang CBA 24 22 953.1 233 447 .521 12 33 .364 142 208 .683 71 215 286 76 58 38 112 96 620
2011-12 * Incheon ET Land Elephants KBL 19 18 649.5 134 254 .528 0 5 .000 56 105 .533 65 120 185 58 21 16 66 63 324
2012-13 Shandong CBA 42 41 1247.5 201 374 .537 0 1 .000 35 132 .265 107 275 382 134 83 63 187 103 437
2013-14 * All Teams All Leagues 28 3 894.4 173 321 .539 1 6 .167 31 94 .330 69 203 272 112 77 56 121 115 378
2013-14 * Jiangsu Nangang CBA 25 1 829.4 165 305 .541 1 6 .167 30 87 .345 67 192 259 105 69 55 108 109 361
2013-14 * Capitanes de Arecibo Americas 3 2 65 8 16 .500 0 0 .000 1 7 .143 2 11 13 7 8 1 13 6 17

International Regular Season Stats - Misc Stats

Season Team League GP GS Dbl Dbl Tpl Dbl 40 Pts 20 Reb 20 Ast Techs HOB Ast/TO Stl/TO FT/FGA W's L's Win % OWS DWS WS
2011-12 * All Teams All Leagues 43 40 29 1 1 1 0 0 .352 0.84 0.50 0.45 16 27 .372 3.23 2.34 5.57
2011-12 * Jiangsu Nangang CBA 24 22 19 0 1 1 0 0 .352 0.79 0.60 0.47 7 17 .292 1.43 1.63 3.06
2011-12 * Incheon ET Land Elephants KBL 19 18 10 1 0 0 0 0 .352 0.92 0.33 0.41 9 10 .474 0.35 1.17 1.52
2012-13 Shandong CBA 42 41 12 1 0 0 0 0 .209 1.30 0.81 0.35 30 12 .714 -0.34 3.64 3.30
2013-14 * All Teams All Leagues 28 3 13 1 0 0 0 0 .270 0.97 0.67 0.29 13 15 .464 -0.54 2.30 1.77
2013-14 * Jiangsu Nangang CBA 25 1 13 1 0 0 0 0 .280 0.96 0.63 0.29 12 13 .480 -0.98 2.37 1.39
2013-14 * Capitanes de Arecibo Americas 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 .167 1.17 1.33 0.44 1 2 .333 -0.21 0.16 -0.04

International Regular Season Stats - Advanced Stats

Season Team League GP GS TS% eFG% ORB% DRB% TRB% AST% TOV% STL% BLK% USG% Total S % PPR PPS ORtg DRtg PER
2011-12 * All Teams All Leagues 43 40 .563 .532 9.92 26.20 17.77 16.28 15.94 2.63 2.83 28.59 147.19 -4.23 1.35 108.1 105.4 22.81
2011-12 * Jiangsu Nangang CBA 24 22 .576 .535 8.29 26.84 17.25 15.51 15.13 3.12 3.18 29.29 156.76 -4.59 1.39 110.5 104.9 24.69
2011-12 * Incheon ET Land Elephants KBL 19 18 .540 .528 12.65 25.21 18.69 17.44 17.35 1.85 2.26 27.51 106.09 -3.68 1.28 103.9 106.0 18.21
2012-13 Shandong CBA 42 41 .506 .537 10.64 26.08 18.54 16.83 19.25 3.64 5.05 20.01 80.26 -1.13 1.17 101.9 97.0 16.97
2013-14 * All Teams All Leagues 28 3 .522 .540 9.31 27.74 18.46 20.62 24.09 4.41 5.60 24.61 103.54 -4.26 1.18 94.9 97.3 18.55
2013-14 * Jiangsu Nangang CBA 25 1 .526 .543 9.75 28.23 18.95 20.89 24.10 4.26 5.78 25.08 105.25 -4.53 1.18 95.7 96.6 18.36
2013-14 * Capitanes de Arecibo Americas 3 2 .445 .500 3.70 21.20 12.27 17.01 23.92 6.47 1.85 18.41 64.29 -2.00 1.06 81.4 105.0 10.48

More Jackson Vroman International Stats »

International Transactions

Mar 7, 2014 - Jackson Vroman, previously with Jiangsu Nangang, has signed with Capitanes de Arecibo.
Dec 22, 2014 - Jackson Vroman has signed with AEK Athens.

More International Transactions »

National Basketball

Nationality: United States / Lebanon

FIBA Senior Team Events Stats

Year Event GP MIN FGM FGA FG% 3PM 3PA 3P% FTM FTA FT% TRB AST STL BLK PF TOV PTS Place
2010 FIBA World Cup 5 29:12 5.6 11.0 .509 0.2 1.0 .200 3.4 8.0 .425 6.4 2.0 1.6 0.2 3.4 2.8 14.8 20th
2009 FIBA Asia Championship 8 32:45 6.0 12.0 .500 0.2 0.6 .400 4.9 7.9 .619 8.4 2.5 1.4 0.5 3.2 2.6 17.1 4th
AVERAGES   13 31:23 5.8 11.6 .503 0.2 0.8 .300 4.3 7.9 .544 7.6 2.3 1.5 0.4 3.3 2.7 16.2 -
TOTAL   13 408:00 76 151 .503 3 10 .300 56 103 .544 99 30 19 5 43 35 211 -